When configuring an exchange account on an Android device, the user should receive a prompt to enable the Device Administrator service at some point during the setup. This service is what the exchange server uses to push security policies and wipe the device. If not enabled, sync issues will occur and data will not flow to the device.
To confirm that the Device Administrator Service is active on the device, go to Settings > Security > Device > Administrators. If nothing is listed for email or if it is not active, data will not synchronize.
To get the prompt to show up after configuring the account on the device, enable the auto-sync setting. This will be found in the power settings widget, or on some models, by swiping down on the notification bar. Once done, power cycle the device and open the email application. The prompt should appear as a pop-up or in the notification bar at the top, depending on the model.
To enable auto-sync on most Android devices, ensure Auto-sync is enabled (checked):
Android 2x-3x (Gingerbread, etc)
Home > Menu > Settings > Accounts and Sync > Manage Accounts
Android 4x (Ice Cream Sandwich, Jellybean)
Home > Menu > Settings > Wireless & Networks...Data Usage > Menu (upper right corner) > Auto-sync data